[推荐]江苏省启东中学2018届高三英语最后一模试题(含解析)

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江苏省启东中学2018届高三最后一模

英语试题

第Ⅰ卷(三部分 共85分)

本试卷分四部分。共150分,共8页。考试结束后,将本试卷和答题卡一并交回。

第一部分 听力(百强校英语解析团队专供)(共两节,满分20分)

做题时,先将答案标在试卷上。录音内容结束后,你将有两分钟的时间将试卷上的答案转涂到答题卡上。

第一节 (共5小题;每小题1分,满分5分)

听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。

1. What does the woman plan to do?

A. Relax in the backyard. B. Make some coffee. C. Wash clothes.

2. Where is the Modem American History class probably?

A. In Room 302. B. In Room 202. C. In the main hall.

3. What time is it now?

A. 6:00 pm. B. 6:30 pm. C. 7:00 pm.

4. Why can’t the girl swim?

A. She hasn’t taken swimming lessons.

B. She is too young to learn it.

C. She disliked the water.

5. What does the man mean?

A. He handles his work with ease.

B. He is fully occupied in his word.

C. He can’t describe his duty at work.

第二节(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)

听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。

听第6段材料,回答第6、7题。

6. Why does the woman talk to the man?

A. To cancel their plan. B. To make an invitation. C. To ask for advice.

7. What will the man probably do this evening?

A. See a band show. B. Pick up his parents. C. Buy tickets online.

听第7段材料,回答第8、9题。

8. What subject is the man good at?

A. History. B. Maths. C. Computer.

9. What does the woman want the man to do?

A. Lend his computer to her. B. Draw some graphs for her. C. Get some books for her.

听第8段材料,回答第10至12题。

10. What advantage does cash payment have according to the man?

A. It makes people feel safer.

B. It prevents people from overspending.

C. It offers rewards like store discounts or points.

11. Why does the woman prefer a credit card?

A. It can be canceled easily.

B. It can be used in an emergency.

C. It often charges a low rate of interest.

12. Where does the conversation probably take place?

A. In a bank. B. In s company C. In a supermarket.

听第9段材料,回答第13至16题。

13. When can people enjoy the art exhibition?

A. On Monday. B. On Tuesday. C. On Thursday.

14. In which aspect is this year’s ballet performance different from that of last year?

A. Admission is free.

B. It will be at the theater.

C. There will be two performances.

15. Where will the mask party be held?

A. In the piazza. B. In the concert hall. C. In the theater.

16. How much is a family ticket for The Little Prince?

A. $8. B. $10. C. $15.

听第10段材料,回答第17至20题。

17. Who usually reads the morning announcements?

A. Timmy. B. Mr. McKinney. C. Principal Johnson.

18. When is the last day of school?

A. May 20th. B. Next Wednesday. C. One month from today.

19. For what does the speaker apologize?

A. The library hours. B. The homework. C. The computers.

20. What will take place on Saturday afternoon?

A. A basketball game. B. A softball game. C. A baseball game.

第二部分 英语知识运用(百强校英语解析团队专供)(共两节,满分35分)

第一节 单项填空(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)

请认真阅读下面各题,从题中所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

1. The language in the company’s statement is highly ________, thus making its staff confused.

A. ambiguous B. apparent

C. appropriate D. aggressive

【答案】A

【解析】考查形容词。句意:公司的声明中用的语言非常含糊,因此使得职员们非常困惑。ambitious含糊的,不明确的;apparent明显的;appropriate适当的;aggressive有进取心的。由后面的“making the staff confused”可知,公司的声明非常的含糊,故A选项正确。

2. The Tang Dynasty is generally regarded as a golden chapter by people worldwide, ________ the Chinese civilization influenced many neighboring countries.

A. where B. when

C. which D. who

【答案】B

【解析】考查定语从句。句意:唐朝被世界范围的人们认为是一个黄金时期,在这个时期,中国文明影响了很多临近的国家。“________ the Chinese civilization influenced many neighboring countries”是非限制性定语从句,修饰the Tang Dynasty,引导词在从句中做时间状语,故应用关系副词when引导该从句。B选项正确。

3. —How was your job interview?

—Very successful. I ________ my homework about the company, you know.

A. had done B. have done

C. did D. was doing

【答案】A

【解析】考查时态。句意:——你的工作面试怎么样?——非常成功。我了解过这家公司。由第一句可知,参加面试是过去的行为,那么了解该公司应该是面试之前的行为,即过去的过去,故该句应用过去完成时态。A选项正确。

4. The educational reform is now under way throughout the country, ________ the students more opportunities to develop to their greatest potential.

A. to grant B. having granted

C. granting D. granted

【答案】C

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:全国正在进行教育改革,给了学生们更多发挥最大潜力的机会。“________ the students more opportunities to develop to their greatest potential”是非限制性定语,修饰主句The educational reform is now under way throughout the country,主句和grant之间是主动关系,故用现在分词。C选项正确。

5. When Paul ________ for the final game of the basketball season, his fans let out shouts of cry.

A. made up B. showed up

C. caught up D. held up

【答案】B

【解析】考查动词短语辨析。句意:当保罗出现在篮球赛季的最后一场比赛上时,他的粉丝们爆发出喊叫声。A. made up组成,编造;B. showed up到场,出现;C. caught up赶上;D. held up举起,耽搁。粉丝喊叫应该是保罗出场时,故B选项正确。

6. ________ work and creative activities have been important drivers of human progress is deeply rooted in our social values.

A. How B. Whether

C. That D. Why

【答案】C

【解析】考查主语从句。句意:工作和创造性活动是人类进步的重要驱动者,这深深地植根于我们的社会价值观中。“________ work and creative activities have been important drivers of human progress”作主语,是主语从句,该从句结构意思完整,故应用that引导该从句。故C选项正确。

7. —Don’t make a special journey to pick up the laundry for me.

—It’s OK. I ________ to the shop anyway.

A. was going B. will have gone

C. have gone D. will be going

【答案】D

【解析】考查时态。句意:——不用专门为我去取衣服。——没关系。反正我都要去商店。由第一句可知,去取衣服是还没有发生的事情,由此可知,去商店是将来的事情,故D选项正确。D选项的将来进行时相当于一般将来时。

8. —What is your impression of your former colleague Nick?

—He’s helpful, and he ________ give us a hand at work.

A. must B. would

C. may D. should

【答案】B

9. ________ the oil under the sea, the company has raised ample funds to develop petroleum exploration equipment.

A. Exploiting B. Having exploited

C. To exploit D. Exploited

【答案】C

【解析】考查非谓语动词。句意:为了探索海底石油,该公司筹集了充足的资金来开发石油勘探设备。“________ the oil under the sea”是目的状语,表目的,应用动词不定式,故C选项正确。

10. Thanks to the special chemical ________ of the soil in the mountainous area, this economic plant grows well there.

A. composition B. competence

C. construction D. conclusion

【答案】A

【解析】考查名词词义辨析。句意:由于山区里土壤的特殊化学成分,这种经济作物在那儿生长得非常好。composition构成;合成物;成分;competence能力;construction建造;conclusion结论。根据常识可知,这里指化学成分,A选项正确。

11. —Shall we turn to the boss for a longer holiday?

—He’ll probably say no, ________ it’s worth asking.

A. so B. while

C. unless D. though

【答案】D

【解析】考查连词词义辨析。句意:——我们去找老板要求一个更长的假好吗?——他可能会不同意,虽然问问他是值得的。前后两句之间是转折关系,故D选项正确,though引导让步状语从句。while引导让步状语从句应置于主句之前。so表示因果关系。unless意为“除非”,表示条件关系。

12. —Have you searched the kitchen for your car key?

—No. It was in the study I remember I left it.

A. which B. where

C. that D. as

【答案】C

【解析】考查强调句。句意:——你已经在客厅里找钥匙了吗?——没有。我记得我把它落在了书房里了。去掉It was和该空之后,剩余部分可组合成一个完整句子:I remember I left it in the study。根据强调句的判断依据可知,这是一个强调句,故该空应填that。C选项正确。

13. Alice, the sales manager of the company, is doing a course to ________ her business skills.

A. decorate B. sharpen

C. evaluate D. allocate

【答案】B

【解析】考查动词词义辨析。句意:这家公司的销售经理Alice正在学习一门课程来提高她的业务技能。A. decorate装饰;B. sharpen加强,提高;C. evaluate评估,评价;D. allocate分配,分派。Alice学习课程的目的是提高技能,故B选项正确。

14. Before real estate control policies were introduced, people hoped that their income would be increased ________ the rise in housing prices.

A. in touch with B. in anticipation of

C. in line with D. in combination of

【答案】C

【解析】考查介词短语辨析。句意:在出台房地产管制政策之前,人们希望他们的收入能随着房价的上涨而增加。A. in touch with和……保持联系;B. in anticipation of期待着……,预计到……;C. in line with和……一致;D. in combination of结合。结合常识可知,C选项符合语境。

15. —Mum, I didn’t do well in the last English test.

—________. Try to make it next time.

A. Take your time B. That’s right

C. You’re welcome D. It’s not a big deal

【答案】D

【解析】考查情景对话。句意:——妈妈,我上次英语测试没考好。——没关系。下次努力考好吧。take your time别着急,慢慢来;That’s right对,没错;You’re welcome不客气;It’s not a big deal没什么大不了的。由“Try to make it next time”可知,母亲认为孩子没考好没什么大不了。故D选项正确。

第二节 完形填空(共20小题;每小题1分,满分20分)

请认真阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

Last year I broke the record for the oldest person in the world to ride a rollercoaster. I’m 105, but the doctor agrees I’m in good ___16___.

The rollercoaster I rode ___17___ you round quite fast. It was, however, a bit too ___18___ for me. I’d have preferred a really fast one that went upside down. But I was told I couldn’t ride it, because my blood pressure could drop and I might have ___19___.

I wasn’t nervous. I was securely ___20___ in, so I knew I wouldn’t fall out. The rollercoaster ride went on for three or four minutes, and I ___21___ every second. Later, someone came to ___22___ me with the Guinness World Records Certificate.

My ___23___ ways really began a couple of years ago, with the ice-bucket challenge. My great-granddaughter recommended me to have a bucket of ___24___ water poured on my head. I was 102 then. It _____25_____ that I was the oldest person in the world to do it, and the video clip of me was very _____26_____. After that, I started to think about what else I could do for different _____27_____. My family say I’m crazy, but they always go along with me. I do get people _____28_____ I take it easy, but I’m not taking any _____29_____.

If someone now broke my world record, I’d say, “Good luck to you.” But the real _____30_____ is not what I’ve done; it’s how hard I’ve always worked. I’m taking it easy now, so I have found a new challenge. I was suspended on a rope from a crane about 25 feet high and _____31_____ myself down. It was fun.

I’ve got a few ideas for the next charity challenge on my 106th birthday, but nothing has been _____32_____ yet. All I can say is that it will be _____33_____ good, if not better than the rollercoaster.

I’m not sure if anyone is _____34_____ of all the fun I’m having. They just say I’m silly and that’s about it. On _____35_____, I’ve had many good days. I’ve had a really good life.

16. A. order B. shape C. mood D. faith

17. A. shows B. drags C. spins D. rolls

18. A. loose B. weird C. violent D. gentle

19. A. passed by B. dived in C. taken off D. blacked out

20. A. fastened B. trapped C. locked D. fenced

21. A. enjoyed B. counted C. forgot D. recalled

22. A. greet B. bother C. present D. assist

23. A. far-reaching B. record-breaking C. time-consuming D. ever-lasting

24. A. freezing B. hot C. warm D. cool

25. A. worked out B. figured out C. left out D. turned out

26. A. reasonable B. abstract C. popular D. flexible

27. A. sections B. divisions C. charities D. estates

28. A. criticizing B. expressing C. justifying D. suggesting

29. A. action B. notice C. trouble D. chance

30. A. problem B. despair C. limit D. achievement

31. A. lowered B. calmed C. slowed D. knocked

32. A. promoted B. confirmed C. explored D. approved

33. A. equally B. extremely C. typically D. normally

34. A. proud B. ashamed C. capable D. envious

35. A. average B. occasion C. reflection D. purpose

【答案】16. B 17. C 18. D 19. D 20. A 21. A 22. C 23. B 24. A 25. D 26. C 27. C 28. D 29. B 30. D 31. A 32. B 33. A 34. D 35. C

【解析】这是一篇夹叙夹议类文章。作者在100多岁的高龄时,进行了一些挑战。通过这些挑战,作者既为慈善事业做了很大贡献,同时自己也收获了很多快乐。

16. 考查名词词义辨析。A. order命令,顺序;B. shape形状;C. mood情绪;D. faith信心,信念。由第一句可知,作者在104岁的高龄还可以乘坐过山车,由此可知,作者身体状况良好。in good shape意为“身体状况良好”,是固定表达,故B选项正确。

17. 考查动词词义辨析。A. shows展示;B. drags拽,拖;C. spins(使)旋转;D. rolls滚,滚动。由常识可知,过山车使乘坐者身体旋转。C选项正确。

18. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. loose松散的;B. weird奇怪的,不寻常的;C. violent暴力的;D. gentle温柔的,温和的。由后面两句可知,作者因为身体原因不能乘坐特别快的过山车,由此可知,作者认为自己乘坐的过山车不够快,太“温柔”了。故D选项正确。

19. 考查动词短语辨析。A. passed by从……旁边走过,经过;B. dived in头朝下跳入水中;C. taken off起飞;D. blacked out晕厥,暂时昏迷。血压下降可能会导致人昏厥,所以医生禁止作者乘坐速度快的过山车。D选项正确。

20. 考查动词词义辨析。A. fastened系牢,系上,拴上;B. trapped使困住;C. locked锁上;D. fenced(用篱笆等)围住,把……圈起来。由后面的“I wouldn’t fall out”可知,作者被安全带牢牢地固定住。A选项正确。

21. 考查动词词义辨析。A. enjoyed喜欢,享受;B. counted数,重要;C. forgot忘记;D. recalled记起,回想起。由该段中的“I wasn’t nervous”可知,过山车运转了3或4分钟,作者非常享受这个过程,一点也不紧张。A选项正确。

22. 考查动词词义辨析。A. greet问候;B. bother费力,麻烦;C. present颁发,授予;D. assist帮助。根据后面的“the Guinness World Records Certificate”可知,有人给作者颁发了吉尼斯世界纪录证书。C选项正确。

23. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. far-reaching影响深远的看,意义重大的;B. record-breaking破纪录的;C. time-consuming耗时的;D. ever-lasting持久的,永恒的。由第一段可知,作者打破了世界吉尼斯纪录,由此可知,该句作者在回忆自己这些破纪录的行为。B选项正确。

24. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. freezing严寒的,冰冻的;B. hot热的;C. warm温暖的;D. cool凉爽的。由上一句中的“the ice-bucket challenge”可知,作者的曾孙女建议作者把一桶冰水从头顶浇下来。故A选项正确。

25. 考查动词短语辨析。A. worked out解决,计算出;B. figured out弄清楚,弄明白;C. left out遗漏,省略;D. turned out结果是,证明是。结果证明我是世界上进行冰桶挑战年纪最大的人。It turned out that…意为“结果证明……”,可看做一个固定句式。故选D。

26. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. reasonable合情合理的;B. abstract抽象的;C. popular流行的,受欢迎的;D. flexible灵活的。有关作者冰桶挑战的视频非常受欢迎,这使得作者开始考虑自己还可以做什么来为慈善事业做贡献。C选项正确。

27. 考查名词词义辨析。A. sections部分;B. divisions分配;C. charities慈善;D. estates庄园,遗产。由常识可知,冰桶挑战是一个慈善活动,结合最后一段的“I’ve got a few ideas for the next charity challenge on my 106th birthday”也可知道,作者的一系列努力都是为了慈善事业。故C选项正确。

28. 考查动词词义辨析。A. criticizing批评;B. expressing表达;C. justifying证明(决定、行为或想法)正当;D. suggesting建议,显示。的确有人建议作者要放松,但是作者没有注意到。D选项正确。

29. 考查名词词义辨析。A. action行动;B. notice注意,通知;C. trouble麻烦;D. chance机会。的确有人建议作者要放松,但是作者没有注意到。B选项正确。

30. 考查名词词义辨析。A. problem问题;B. despair绝望;C. limit限制;D. achievement成就。作者认为真正的成就不是作者做了什么而是作者付出的努力。D选项正确。

31. 考查动词词义辨析。A. lowered降低;B. calmed(使)平静;C. slowed(使)放慢速度;D. knocked敲,撞。我被吊在25英尺高的吊车上,然后降下去,A选项正确。

32. 考查动词词义辨析。A. promoted促进,促销;B. confirmed证实,确认,批准;C. explored探索;D. approved支持,赞成。作者对于下一个挑战已经有了一些想法,但是,这些想法还没有被批准(实施)。故B选项正确。

33. 考查副词词义辨析。A. equally同样地,平等地;B. extremely及其地,极度地;C. typically典型地;D. normally正常地。如果我的下一个慈善挑战超不过坐过山车的话,它也和坐过山车一样的好。A选项正确。

34. 考查形容词词义辨析。A. proud骄傲的,自豪的;B. ashamed羞愧的;C. capable有能力的;D. envious嫉妒的。我不确定是否有人嫉妒我所拥有的快乐。他们只是说我太傻了。D选项正确。

35. 考查名词词义辨析。A. average平均数;B. occasion场合;C. reflection反映,思考;D. purpose目的。经过思考,作者认为自己拥有很多美好的日子。on reflection经过考虑,经过思考,是固定短语。C选项正确。

【点睛】完形填空解题技巧:上下联系——寻信息

  完形填空中经常会出现前面的信息为后面的空白提供暗示,而后面的信息有可能是前面空白的答案的情况。这时,考生切不可死盯空白不放,而要联系上下文,寻求信息以确定答案。例如第九小题中,根据该段第一句中提到的由上一句中的the ice-bucket challenge可知,作者最初进行的是冰桶挑战。由此可知,作者是将一桶冰水从头顶浇下来。由此可以得出答案“freezing”。

第三部分 阅读理解(百强校英语解析团队专供)(共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)

请认真阅读下列短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

TEACH AND TRAVEL: USE OUR SPONSORSHIP TO BECOME A

CERTIFIED TEACHER IN WEEKS

where the world meets

WHAT’S INCLUDED IN THE SPONSORED ANGLO-TEFL (TEACHING ENGLISH AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE) SCHOLARSHIP:

●A partly sponsored, 120-hour online TEFL training course

●210 hours of real-life teaching experience

● A TEFL certificate upon completion of the Scholarship

●Full board during Angloville programs (three meals a day)

HOW IT WORKS:

APPLY

Choose your venues (地点) and apply online REFUNDABLE CONFIRMATION FEE

Pay 69 EUR confirmation fee (50 EUR Refundable (可退还的) on Completion)

TEACHING PRACTICE

Get Access to TEFL course & attend Teaching Practice with Angloville

TYPES OF ‘TEACHING EXPERIENCE’ PROGRAMMES:

Angloville Junior -ideal for 18-35 year-old Anglo-TEFL participants. You will be tutoring teenagers aged 12-18 years old. A lot of games, sports, conversations and fun to be expected!

Angloville Adult -ideal for 30+ year-old Anglo-TEFL participants. You will be tutoring adult learners. Most days consist of 1 on 1 conversations with various professionals.

MY COMMITMENTS:

Participants combine several 3-11 day programs into a longer package ranging from 4-8 weeks in total. During each program, participants talk on average for around 10-11 hours a day. The most important difference between Angloville and a traditional English course is that we do not teach through books or theory. We will provide materials, but only to help stimulate (刺激) diverse conversations.

APPLY IF YOU:

● Are aged 18+ for junior programs and aged 25+ for adult programs

● Are a native English speaker

● Have completed High School

● Have ability to cope with challenges, good communication skills, cultural sensitivity

Open-mindedness is key to being a good participant in Angloville. If you enjoy new cultures, experiences, and people, this will undoubtedly be a wonderful opportunity for you.

36. What do we know about the Angloville programs?

A. Meals are partly sponsored by the programs.

B. Confirmation fee will be fully refunded later.

C. 1 on 1 talks are arranged for junior participants.

D. Material-stimulated talks make Angloville different.

37. What is the determining factor to be a good participant in Angloville?

A. Academic achievements. B. Communication skills.

C. Cultural sensitivity. D. Open-mindedness.

【答案】36. D 37. D

【解析】这是一篇应用文。介绍了有关Angloville 项目的有关信息以及申请的条件。

36. 细节理解题。由MY COMMITMENTS:部分中的“The most important difference between Angloville and a traditional English course is that we do not teach through books or theory. We will provide materials, but only to help stimulate (刺激) diverse conversations”可知,Angloville和传统英语课程不同的地方是我们不通过课本和理论进行教学,我们提供材料,唯一目的是刺激不同的交谈。结合选项可知,D选项符合题意。

37. 细节理解题。由最后一段中的“Open-mindedness is key to being a good participant in Angloville”可知,成为一个好的参与者的关键因素是思想开放,故D选项正确。

【点睛】细心审题,直接就题找答案。解答此类试题时,不必通篇细看原文,而应采取“带着问题找答案”的方法,先从问题中抓住关键性词语(题眼),然后以此为线索,运用略读及查读的技巧快速在文章中寻找与此问题相关的:段落、语句,仔细品味,对照比较,确定答案。在第二小题中,考生可根据题干中的“the determining factor(决定性因素)”来确定答案信息在最后一段中的“Open-mindedness is key to being a good participant in Angloville”,从而直接确定答案为D选项。

B

Recent summer temperatures in parts of Australia were high enough to melt asphalt. As global warming speeds up the heat and climatic events increase, many plants may be unable to cope. But at least one species of eucalyptus tree can resist extreme heat by continuing to “sweat” when other essential processes stop, a new study finds.

As plants change sunlight into food, or photosynthesize (光合作用), they absorb carbon dioxide through pores on their leaves. These pores also release water via transpiration(蒸腾), which circulates nutrients through the plant and helps cool it by evaporation(蒸发). But exceptionally high temperatures are known to greatly reduce photosynthesis—and most existing plant models suggest this should also decrease transpiration, leaving trees in danger of fatally overheating. Because it is difficult for scientists to control and vary trees’ conditions in their natural environment, little is known about how individual species handle this situation.

Ecologist John Drake of the S.U.N.Y. College of Environmental Science and Forestry and his colleagues grew a dozen Parramatta red gum (Eucalyptus parramattensis) trees in large, climate-controlled plastic pods that separated the trees from the surrounding forest for a year in Richmond, Australia. Six of the trees were grown at surrounding air temperatures and six at temperatures three degrees Celsius higher. The researchers withheld (扣留) water from the surface soil of all 12 trees for a month to imitate a mild dry spell, then induced a four-day “extreme” heat wave: They raised the maximum temperatures in half of the pods(three with surrounding temperatures and three of the warmer ones)— to 44 degrees ℃.

Photosynthesis ground to a near halt in the trees facing the artificial heat wave. But to the researchers’ surprise, these trees continued to transpire at close-to-normal levels, effectively cooling themselves and their surroundings. The trees grown in warmer conditions coped just as well as the others, and photosynthesis rates bounced back to normal after the heat wave passed, Drake and his colleagues reported online in Global Change Biology.

The researchers think the Parramatta red gums were able to effectively sweat — even without photosynthesis — because they are particularly good at tapping into water deep in the soil. But if a heat wave and a severe drought (干旱) were to hit at the same time and the groundwater was exhausted, the trees may not be so lucky, Drake says.

Other scientists call the finding encouraging. “It’s definitely good news,” says Trevor Keenan, an ecologist at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, who was not part of the study. “It would be very interesting to know how this translates to other species,” he adds. Drake hopes to conduct similar experiments with trees common in North America.

38. How does one species of eucalyptus tree cope with extreme heat waves?

A. By releasing water. B. By blocking sunlight.

C. By absorbing groundwater. D. By reducing photosynthesis.

39. What did the researchers do during their study?

A. They grew all the trees in artificial temperatures.

B. They induced a heat wave in a dozen pods of trees.

C. They created climate-controlled surroundings for trees.

D. They varied trees’ conditions in their natural environment.

40. The underlined phrase “ground to a near halt” in Paragraph 4 means “________”.

A. continued B. substituted

C. strengthened D. ceased

41. What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs?

A. Photosynthesis is necessary for the trees to sweat.

B. No further experiments will be done other species.

C. Other species will be transplanted to North America.

D. Groundwater helps the trees survive the extreme heat.

【答案】38. A 39. C 40. D 41. D

【解析】这是一篇科普说明文。联合国环境科学与林业学院的生态学家John Drake和他的同事们通过对红桉树做实验,得出结论:在极度的高温中,红桉树仍然可以通过释放水分来抵抗热浪,获得生存。

38. 细节理解题。由第一段中的“But at least one species of eucalyptus tree can resist extreme heat by continuing to “sweat”可知,桉树通过“流汗”,即释放水分来抵抗极度的热,故A选项正确。

39. 细节理解题。由第三段中的“Ecologist John Drake… and his colleagues grew a dozen Parramatta red gum … trees in large, climate-controlled plastic pods that separated the trees from the surrounding forest for a year in Richmond, Australia.”可知,研究者们将12棵红桉树种植在巨大的,气候受控制的塑料舱里,这种塑料仓将这些树和周围的森林分离开来。结合选项可知,研究者们为这些树创造了一个气候受控制的生长环境,故C选项正确。

40. 词义猜测题。由第二段中的“But exceptionally high temperatures are known to greatly reduce photosynthesis”可知,极度的高温会减少光合作用。由第四段后面的内容可知,令研究者们惊讶的是,面对着人工制造出来的热浪,这些树继续以接近正常的水平蒸发,有效地使自己和周围的环境凉爽下来。结合这两点可以推知,面对人工制造出来的热浪,光合作用应该是大大减少,但这并没有影响树木的蒸发。划线部分意思应当接近于“大大减少,降低”这一类的意思,结合选项,D选项正确:cease意为“停止”。

41. 推理判断题。由倒数第二段中的“The researchers think the Parramatta red gums were able to effectively sweat — even without photosynthesis — because they are particularly good at tapping into water deep in the soil. But if a heat wave and a severe drought (干旱)were to hit at the same time and the groundwater was exhausted, the trees may not be so lucky, Drake says.”可知,这些树擅长吸取地下水,如果热浪干旱同时发生,地下水枯竭的话,那么这些树生存的可能性就比较小了。由此可以推知,地下水帮助这些树存活下来。故D选项正确。

【点睛】根据事实细节,推断合理信息。推理题要求在理解原文表面文字信息的基础上,作出一定判断和推论,从而得到文章的隐含意义和深层意义。推理题所涉及的内容可能是文中某一句话,也可能是某几句话,但做题的指导思想都是以文字信息为依据,既不能做出在原文中找不到文字根据的推理,也不能根据表面文字信息做多步推理。在第四小题中,考生可以根据倒数第二段中的“if a heat wave and a severe drought (干旱)were to hit at the same time and the groundwater was exhausted, the trees may not be so lucky”可知,地下水对于桉树的生存起着重要作用,从而确定答案为D选项。

C

We want our children to succeed, in school and, perhaps even more importantly, in life. But the paradox(悖论) is that our children can only truly succeed if they first learn how to fail. Consider the finding that world-class figure skaters fall over more often in practice than low-level figure skaters. At first sight this seems contradictory. Why are the really good skaters falling over the most?

eason is actually quite simple. Top skaters are constantly challenging themselves in practice, attempting jumps that stretch their limitations. This is why they fall over so often, but it is precisely why they learn so fast. Lower-level skaters have a quite different approach. They are always attempting jumps they can already do very easily, remaining within their comfort zone. This is why they don’t fall over. In a superficial sense, they look successful, because they are always on their feet. The truth, however, is that by never failing, they never progress.

What is true of skating is also true of life. James Dyson worked through 5,126 failed prototypes(原型) for his dual cyclone vacuum before coining up with the design that made his fortune. These failures were essential to the pathway of learning. As Dyson put it: “You can’t develop new technology unless you test new ideas and learn when things go wrong. Failure is essential to invention.”

In healthcare, however, things are very different. Clinicians don’t like to admit to failure, partly because they have healthy egos(自我)(particularly the senior doctors) and partly because they fear litigation(诉讼). The consequence is that instead of learning from failure, healthcare often covers up failure. The direct consequence is that the same mistakes are repeated. According to the Journal of Patient Safety, 400,000 people die every year in American hospitals alone due to preventable error. Until healthcare learns to respond positively to failure, things will not improve.

But let us return to children. One of the major mistakes in education in the 1970s was the attempt to equip children with confidence by giving them lots of successes (setting the bar very low). The consequence was that the ego of kids became bound up with success, and they became unable to take risks and collapsed as soon as they hit a proper challenge.

We need to flip(翻转) this approach. In a complex world, failure is inevitable. It is those individuals and institutions that have the flexibility to face up to failure, learn the lessons and adapt which eventually excel(突出).

42. The question raised in the first paragraph is to ________.

A. open up a discussion on the topic B. analyze the reason for success

C. express the author’s opposition D. doubt the abilities of the top skaters

43. Which of the following is the structure of the passage?

A. B.

C. D.

44. What would be the best title for the passage?

A. How we can avoid failure in life B. What we should learn from failure

C. Why failure is the key to flying high D. Where we further improve ourselves

【答案】42. A 43. A 44. C

【解析】这是一篇议论文。作者通过正反两方面的例子论证了“失败是孩子成功的必须条件”这一观点。

42. 推理判断题。由第一段中的“But the paradox(悖论)is that our children can only truly succeed if they first learn how to fail.”可知,文章的中心论点是如果孩子想要真正成功,首先就要学会失败。后面以世界级滑冰运动员摔倒的次数更多来证明这一点,最后一句提出问题:为什么好的滑冰运动员反而摔倒的次数多呢?下文对这个问题做了回答,进一步阐明了文章的中心论点。很明显,这个问题就是为了引出下文对中心论点的论述服务的。故A选项正确。

43. 文章结构题。第一段提出中心论点并以滑冰运动员为例引出第二段。第三段James Dyson为正面例子证明:成功是建立失败的基础上的。而第四和第五两段分别以医疗和20世纪七十年代的儿童教育为反例证明:不经历失败就不会获得成功和提高。最后一段再次强调中心论点。故A选项正确。

44. 标题归纳题。文章第一段即提出中心论点:the paradox(悖论)is that our children can only truly succeed if they first learn how to fail,中间几段以正反两方面的例子证明了该论点。最后一段又重新强调了该论点。很明显,文章的中心意思就是:失败是孩子真正成功的必要条件。结合选项,C选项为最佳标题。

D

This is my origin story: when I was a teenager I wrote terrible poetry. Like really bad. Worse than yours, I bet. A lot of it about how every little thing reminds me that we’re all going to die one day. I wrote collections and collections of these poems, thinking one day I would have my moment. I named one collection, ironically, The Eternal Optimist.

In 1996, I found an advert for the International Poetry Competition. I was 16 years old and ready for my poetry to be released on the world. Not only was it a competition with a cash prize, but it was poetry, which I wrote, and international. This was my ticket to becoming world-famous. I submitted a poem called Trail of Thought. If you ever wrote bad poetry as a teenager, you’ll have written something like it. In the poem, I went for a walk and noticed small poignant(辛酸的) things in nature, and each one reminded me that we were all going to die one day.

led out the form, printed off the poem and sent it off, fingers crossed. I waited to hear back I carried on writing, I probably finished another collection. Then I got a letter from the International Society of Poets. I opened the envelope carefully, just in case a prize-winning cheque fell out I hadn’t won. But, they liked my poem enough to include it in their anthology(诗选), Awaken to a Dream. I closed my eyes, I wanted to scream with happiness. I was going to be a published poet.

All I had to do in order to be published was accept the terms and pay £ 45(plus £ 5 p & p)for an anthology. If I didn’t buy a copy of the anthology, my poem wouldn’t be included. I had to convince my mum, who thought my writing a meaningless pastime, to part with £ 50. She even asked the question: “Why do you have to pay to be in this book?” Nevertheless, she wrote a cheque for £ 50 and I returned it with my letter of agreement.

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