[推荐]江苏省启东中学2018-2019学年高二英语上学期期初考试试题(含解析)

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江苏省启东中学2018~2019学年度第一学期暑期作业抽测

高二英语

本试卷分第I卷(选择题)和第II卷(非选择题)两部分,共120分,考试时间120分钟。

第I卷(共85分)

第一部分:听力(共两节, 满分20分)

第一节(共5小题;每小题1分,满分5分)

听下面5段对话,每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。

1.Why can’t Tim speak fluent English?

A.He has no time to study.

B. He doesn’t go to English classes.

C. He hardly practises it.

2. What does the man mean?

A. She should wait.

B. She should not receive it.

C. She should take the test again.

3. Why did the man decide to give up his present job?

A. He is not interested in his job.

B. He has found another job with higher pay.

C. He cannot get a rise in pay.

4. What does the woman do?

A. A nurse. B. A teacher. C. A housewife.

5. What does the woman mean?

A. She will accept the job offer. B. She won’t accept the job offer.

C. She has found a job.

第二节(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)

听下面5段对话或独白。每段对话或独白后有几个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听每段对话或独白前,你将有时间阅读各个小题,每小题5秒钟;听完后,各个小题将给出5秒钟的作答时间。每段对话或独白读两遍。

听第6段材料,回答第6至8题。

6. What is the topic of this conversation ?

A. How to register. B. What OICQ is. C. How to be able to chat online.

7. What is the first step in entering a chat room?

A. To register. B. To run the software OICQ. C. To find someone to talk to.

8. What is OICQ?

A. A kind of computer hardware. B. A kind of computer software. C. A web site.

听第7段材料,回答第9至11题。

9. What does Lily do on weekends?

A. Work. B. Study. C. Have a race.

10.What degree is Lily studying for?

A. Bachelor’s degree in Finance.

B. Master’s degree in Commerce.

C. Master’s degree in Finance.

11. What kind of woman is Lily in Gavin’s opinion?

A. Active and pretty. B. Ambitious and energetic.

C. Hard working and warm-hearted.

听第8段材料,回答第12至14题。

12. What’s the matter with Bill?

A. He was not accepted by an American university.

B. He failed the final exam.

C. He failed the GRE.

13. What’s Bill going to do then?

A. To prepare for the graduate entrance exam.

B. To drop the idea of studying abroad.

C. To prepare for the GRE again.

14. What kind of people are good losers?

A. Those who are depressed when facing failure.

B. Those who are sad when facing failure.

C. Those who are still cheerful when facing failure.

听第9段材料,回答第15至17题。

15. What is the man most likely to be?

A. A teacher. B. A businessman. C. A doctor.

16. What is the conversation mainly about?

A. Housewives’ need for a change in their lives.

B. Housewives’ need for a proper job.

C. Men’s dissatisfaction with their wives.

17. What do we know from the conversation?

A.The woman doesn’t want her husband to go out and work.

B.The husband doesn’t understand his wife’s feelings.

C.The husband does not care for his wife very much.

听第10段材料,回答第18至20题。

18.What mistake did the speaker make?

A.She chose to come to America.

B.She chose the wrong subject.

C.She signed up for too many courses.

19. What might be the problem with many students who go to America to study?

A. They don’t have goals.

B.They don’t want to return home.

C. They’re not practical in choosing their majors.

20. What must African students decide before they go abroad to study?

A. What to study and how to use it.

B. When to return home.

C. What is special of their field of study.

第二部分:英语知识运用(共两节,满分35分)

第一节:单项选择(共15小题;每小题1分,满分15分)

请认真阅读下面各题,从题中所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

1.Although the country as _____ whole is fairly wealthy, many people in the countryside live in ______ poverty.

A. a, / B. a , a

C. /, a D. /, /

【答案】A

【解析】

【详解】考查冠词用法。句意:尽管这个国家整体上来说相对富裕,但是很多住在农村的人依然贫穷。as a whole为固定短语,意思为整体上,另外,poverty为抽象名词,in poverty意思为处于贫穷状态,故不用冠词,故选A。

2.The man was in a ________ condition with severe injuries to his legs after being attacked by a shark in far north Queensland.

A. skeptical B. critical

C. practical D. physical

【答案】B

【解析】

考查形容词。A. skeptical怀疑的;B. critical危险的;C. practical实际的;D. physical身体的。句意:这个人在遥远的北昆士兰被鲨鱼袭击后腿部伤势严重,现在处于危险的状况中。根据句意选B。

3.In my opinion, one’s individual income does not wholly reflect the extent ________ one’s self-value and social value are realized.

A. of which B. with which

C. on which D. to which

【答案】D

【解析】

考查定语从句。句意:在我看来,一个人的个人收入并不能完全反映一个人的自我价值和社会价值实现的程度。the extent to表示“……的程度”,在此句中extent是先行词,which在定语从句中代指extent。故选D。

4.---Have you seen your nephew lately?

---Yes, in fact, I saw him yesterday. I _______ him for three years.

A. haven’t seen B. didn’t see

C. hadn’t seen D. don’t see

【答案】C

【解析】

【详解】考查过去完成时。句意:--你最近见你外甥了吗?--见了,我昨天见了他,我都三年都没见他了。根据前文I saw him yesterday可知,说话者在昨天之前有三年没有见了,故为过去的过去,因而用过去完成时,故选C.

【点睛】考查过去完成时。过去完成时的结构为had done,被动形式为had been done,其表示过去的过去,常见的标志性短语by+过去时间,before。其中有些固定结构需要使用过去完成时,比如hardly…when…,no sooner…than…,It was the first/second time (that)…等固定句型中如:Hardly had he begun to speak when the audience interrupted him.他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

5.The majority of new businesses fail because, ________ they have a product or service that fills a gap in the market, they usually lack the skills in sales, marketing, and administration.

A. now that B. even if

C. as long as D. as though

【答案】B

【解析】

考查连词辨析。A. now that既然;B. even if即使;C. as long as只要;D. as though仿佛,好像。句意:多数的新业务失败了,因为即使他们有产品或服务填补了市场空白,但他们通常在销售、营销和管理等方面缺乏技巧。根据句意选B。

6.Newly ________ chairman of the Chinese Basketball Association, Yao Ming has put reforming the domestic game’s management at the top of his agenda.

A. appointing B. appointed

C. being appointed D. having appointed

【答案】B

【解析】

考查非谓语动词。句意:中国篮球协会新任命的主席姚明已经把改革国内比赛的管理放在了他议事日程的首位。句中chairman和动词appoint是被动关系,表示主席被任命,在此用过去分词作定语,故选B。

7.When I called at his home the other day, I found him sitting on an armchair, ___ in his hands.

A. buried his head B. burying his head

C. his head burying D. his head to be buried

【答案】B

【解析】

【详解】考查非谓语动词。句意:那天我去拜访他的时候,我发现他坐在轮椅上,头埋在双手里。分析句子可知,bury在句中作非谓语,与其逻辑主语him为主谓关系,故用现在分词形式,另外bury为及物动词,故用burying his head,选B。

8.Who would you rather _______ with you to the park, John or Mary?

A. have go B. have to go

C. have gone D. had gone

【答案】A

【解析】

【详解】考查非谓语动词。句意:你愿意谁跟你一起去公园,约翰还是玛丽?分析句子可知,本句为would rather do sth宁愿做某事,另外have sb do sth使某人做某事,综述选A。

9.Education helps open the mind and provides possibilities that a person ______ otherwise.

A. wouldn’t have B. shall not have

C. didn’t have D. doesn’t have

【答案】A

【解析】

【详解】考查虚拟语气。句意:教育帮助开阔视野,也提供一个原本没有的可能性。分析句子可知,that a person ______ otherwise.为限制性定语从句修饰先行词possibilities,而从句中otherwise否则可知,从句为虚拟条件状语从句,相当于a person wouldn’t have possibilities if there was not education,故选A。

【点睛】含蓄条件状语从句。有些句子,虽没有含条件关系的连词,却也隐含着条件关系,被叫做含蓄条件状语从句,这些句子常用一些词,如but for, without,otherwise等引出一个介词结构来表示条件,条件应该是虚拟的,或与事实相反的假设。

比如but for 若非,要不是You may consider it useless, but for our customers it's an all-important sign of good service. 您也许会认为这样毫无用处,可是对于我们的客户而言,它却是优质服务的重要体现。

without 如果没有就不You can't have one without the other, as the song says. 就像歌里唱的那样,两者密不可分,不能只取其一。

Otherwise否则,This is the one blemish on an otherwise resounding success.? 如果没有这个小小的失误,这就是一次彻底的胜利。

10.She seemed to be very tired, but if she could ______ for more than 5 minutes, she could break the record in the long-distance race.

A. take on B. hang on

C. work on D. depend on

【答案】B

【解析】

【详解】考查动词短语。句意:她似乎很疲惫,但是如果她能再坚持5分钟,她就会打破长跑的记录。A. take on 呈现;B. hang on坚持;C. work on从事;D. depend on依赖。根据后文she could break the record in the long-distance race可知,她没有打破纪录,因而选B。

11.Care of the soul is a gradual process ______ even the small details of life should be considered.

A. what B. in what

C. which D. in which

【答案】D

【解析】

 D

解析 句意为:心灵的护理是一个渐进的过程,在这个过程中,甚至生活中那些微小的细节都应该加以考虑。in which引导限制性定语从句,which代指前面的process。

12.The conference aims to develop business and let people think about _______ they can have a positive influence on the planet.

A. why B. that

C. what D. how

【答案】D

【解析】

【详解】考查宾语从句。句意:这个会议旨在发展商业,让人们思考怎样对这个星球有积极作用。分析句子可知,they can have a positive influence on the planet为宾语从句作about的宾语,从句缺乏方式状语,故用连接副词how,故选D。

13.I’ll get it for you ________ I would remember who last borrowed the book.

A. now that B. except that

C. considering that D. on condition that

【答案】D

【解析】

【详解】考察状语从句。句意:我会把书给你,只要我能想起谁最后借了这本书。A. now that既然;B. except that除了;C. considering that鉴于;D. on condition that条件是。分析前后句可知,前后句为条件,故选D。

14.________ individual players, we have a great team but the problem is that they don’t play football together well at all.

A. On top of B. By means of

C. In terms of D. In case of

【答案】C

【解析】

考查介词短语。A. On top of在……之上;B. By means of用,依靠;C. In terms of按照,就……而言;D. In case of万一,假设。句意:就队员个人而言,我们有一个很伟大的团队,但问题是踢足球时他们根本不能很好地配合。故选C。

15.— I am worn out. — Me too, all work and no play. So it’s time to ________.

A. burn the midnight oil B. push the limits

C. go with the flow D. call it a day

【答案】D

【解析】

考查习语和情景交际。A. burn the midnight oil开夜车;B. push the limits超越极限;C. go with the flow顺其自然;D. call it a day收工,暂停。句意:——我累坏了。——我也是,一直工作不休息。因此到收工的时候了。根据语境选D。

第二节:完形填空(共20小题;每小题1分,满分20分)

请认真阅读下面短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

Just as we take care of our friends and families, our homes and Mother Earth take care of us. Our homes give us a place of shelter that ____16____ between us and the rest of the world. The earth is a(n) ____17____ giver of life and the keeper of our physical and spiritual needs. Her rich ____18____ bring us up, give us air, and offer us cooling shade. Her waters ____19____ our thirst. Yet it is easy to take both of these wonderful ____20____ of our gifts for granted. ____21____ the thanks you feel toward your home and Mother Earth for the gifts each ____22____ you. It can help you stay ____23____ of where many of the gifts in your life come from. Each time you give thanks, you’ll be ____24____ of the importance of caring for your home and for Mother Earth. There is a simple and beautiful ____25____ you can find to show your thanks. Begin by finding a ____26____ place where you can be alone. Sit comfortably and breathe deeply ____27____ you feel relaxed and then read the following out loud:

“Thank you, home, for allowing me to live ____28____ your walls. Thank you for allowing me to stay strong and ____29____ me. Thank you, Mother Earth, for the land I ____30____ on and farm. Thank you, plants, minerals, and animals on the land for allowing me to ____31____ your beauty and your amazement of life, and for the ____32____ of living with all of you on this earth. Thank you for the wisdom and ____33____ you bring to us.”

You can do so as often as you like and anytime you feel particularly thankful for the many gifts that you have ____34____. Each time you do, you’ll strengthen your connection with all that ____35____ and supports you.

16. A. bend B. stand C. react D. disappear

17. A. cheerful B. skilful C. unselfish D. amazing

18. A. animals B. plants C. minerals D. waters

19. A. promote B. show C. influence D. satisfy

20. A. sources B. memories C. power D. devotion

21. A. Accept B. Express C. Earn D. Deserve

22. A. employs B. attracts C. appreciates D. provides

23. A. fond B. full C. aware D. kind

24. A. accused B. promised C. warned D. reminded

25. A. road B. word C. way D. place

26. A. safe B. quiet C. distant D. public

27. A. though B. because C. unless D. until

28. A. within B. beyond C. beside D. in

29. A. admitting B. supporting C. challenging D. educating

30. A. live B. call C. focus D. feed

31. A. examine B. explain C. experience D. describe

32. A. adventure B. wisdom C. loss D. honor

33. A. anger B. worry C. joy D. desire

34. A. received B. purchased C. exchanged D. brought

35. A. shocks B. protects C. monitors D. masters

【答案】16. B 17. C 18. B 19. D 20. A 21. B 22. D 23. C 24. D 25. C 26. B 27. D 28. A 29. B 30. A 31. C 32. D 33. C 34. A 35. B

【解析】

本文属于说明文,地球母亲无私给了我们生活居住的地方,为我们提供各种各样的资源,我们不能认为理所当然,应该懂得感恩,并且介绍了一种感恩的方法。

【16题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:我们的家为我们提供了一个能够让我们与世界分开的住所。A. bend弯曲;B. stand站立;C. react反应;D. disappear消失。根据本句shelter可知,本句讲述home的作用,因而家提供了一个能够较少受到外界干扰的地方,故选B。

【17题详解】

考查形容词词义辨析。句意:地球是无私的生命给与者,也是我们物质和精神需求的守护者。A. cheerful高兴的;B. skilful有技巧的;C. unselfish无私的;D. amazing令人惊讶的。根据后文Her rich ____3____ bring us up, give us air, and offer us cooling shade可知,地球给予了我们很多东西,不求回报,故选C。

【18题详解】

考查名词词义辨析。句意:她的植物养育了我们,给我们新鲜的空气以及凉爽的树荫。A. animals动物;B. plants 植物;C. minerals矿物质;D. waters水。根据本句offer us cooling shade可知,提供阴凉的是植物,故选B。

【19题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:她的水解了我们的饥渴。A. promote促进;B. show显示;C. influence影响;D. satisfy使满足。根据本句water和thirst可知,水能解渴,故选D。

【20题详解】

考查名词词义辨析。句意:但是我们很容易把这些礼物的资源当作理所当然。A. sources资源;B. memories记忆;C. power能源;D. devotion奉献。根据上文可知,地球为我们提供了植物,水源,这些都是资源,故选A。

【21题详解】

考查动词词义辨析,句意:表示你感受到的对家和地球母亲为你提供一切的谢意。A. Accept接受;B. Express表达;C. Earn赚取;D. Deserve值得。根据后文可知,作者呼吁我们要表达对地球的感谢,故选B。

【22题详解】

考查动词词义辨析,句意:表示你感受到的对家和地球母亲为你提供一切的谢意。A. employs雇佣;B. attracts吸引;C. appreciates感激;D. provides提供。根据前文可知,地球母亲为我们提供了很多东西,故选D。

【23题详解】

考查形容词词义辨析。句意:这可以帮助你清晰的意识到你生活中的所有东西都来自哪里。A. fond喜欢;B. full充满;C. aware有意识的;D. kind善意的。本句为短语be aware of知道,故选C。

【24题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:每次表达感谢,你就会提醒自己关注家园和地球母亲的重要性。A. accused责备;B. promised承诺;C. warned警告;D. reminded提醒。表达对地球母亲的谢意,能更好关注地球,故选D。

【25题详解】

考查名词词义辨析。句意:你能够找到一种简单而又漂亮的方式来表达对地球的谢意。A. road道路;B. word单词;C. way方法;D. place地方。根据后文可知,作者介绍了一种表达谢意的方法,故选C。

【26题详解】

考查形容词词义辨析。句意:最开始找到一个能够独处的安静地方。A. safe安全的;B. quiet安静的;C. distant遥远的;D. public公共的。根据本句where you can be alone可知,需要寻找一个独处的安静地方,故选B。

【27题详解】

考查连词词义辨析。句意:舒适地坐着,深呼吸直到感觉放松,然后大声读出下面的话语。A. though尽管;B. because因为;C. unless除非;D. until直到。本句介绍感谢地球的方法,故选D。

【28题详解】

考查介词词义辨析。句意:感谢你,家园,感谢让我生活在你围墙里面。A. within在…范围内;B. beyond 超出;C. beside 在旁边;D. in在…里面。根据前文Our homes give us a place of shelter that ____1____ between us and the rest of the world.可知,家园让我们能够更好的生活,不受外界的干扰,故选A。

【29题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:感谢你让我保持强壮和一如既往的抚养我。A. admitting承认;B. supporting支持,抚养;C. challenging挑战;D. educating教育。根据前文giver of life and the keeper of our physical and spiritual needs可知,地球为我们提供很多东西,让我们能够更好的生活,故选B。

【30题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:感谢你,地球母亲,感谢你为我提供我赖以生存和耕种的土地。A. live生活;B. call号召;C. focus关注;D. feed喂养。本句为短语live on以…为生,感谢地球提供土地,故选A。

【31题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:感谢你,感谢你提供植物、矿产和动物,能够让我体验你的美和你的惊奇,很荣幸能够和所有的一切生活在这个地球上。A. examine检测;B. explain解释;C. experience体验;D. describe描述。根据本句beauty and amazement 可知,地球提供了很多东西让我们感受世界的美,故选C。

【32题详解】

考查名词词义辨析。句意:感谢你,感谢你提供植物、矿产和动物,能够让我体验你的美和你的惊奇,很荣幸能够和所有的一切生活在这个地球上。A. adventure冒险;B. wisdom智慧;C. loss损失;D. honor荣耀。本句为感谢地球上所有的东西,因而感到很荣幸,故选D。

【33题详解】

考查名词词义辨析。句意:感谢你教给我们智慧和高兴。A. anger愤怒;B. worry担忧;C. joy高兴;D. desire欲望。本段为表达对地球的感谢,故选C。

【34题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:你可以经常这样做,或者当你为自己收到大自然馈赠感恩的时候,你也可以这样做。A. received收到;B. purchased购买;C. exchanged交换;D. brought带来。根据本句many gifts以及that引导定语从句修饰先行词gifts可知,为收到的大自然馈赠而表达谢意,故选A。

【35题详解】

考查动词词义辨析。句意:每次你这样做的时候,你就会加强保护和抚养你的联系。A. shocks震惊;B. protects保护;C. monitors监视;D. masters精通。根据前文可知,大自然为我们提供了庇护,保护我们,故选B。

第三部分:阅读理解(共15小题;每小题2分,满分30分)

请认真阅读下列短文,从短文后各题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

Teach ANYWHERE in China. 60+ cities, 300+ schools, 14 ESL certifications, upfront paid flights, and more.?

Teach anywhere in China with English First, the world leading privately-owned education company. EF has been in China for over 20 years, and we take pride in setting the standard for teacher care, teacher training and teacher development. Our experienced international team will ensure that your move abroad is a smooth and successful one. Enthusiasm for travel and education is a must. This is a great opportunity to meet people from around the world and gain international teaching experience. APPLY TODAY.

TEACHING OVERSEAS WITH EF ENGLISH FIRST

As an EF English First teacher you will:

●Teach adults, children or online at one of our 300+ schools

●Receive a competitive salary and a great employment package

●Teach abroad for as long as you’d like it to – teaching contracts start at one year, with option to renew for a longer term

●Join a supportive teaching community of over 2, 000 teachers across China

PACKAGE UP TO 16,400 RMB PER MONTH INCLUDES:

●Competitive local salary (dependent on experience)

●Performance bonus after 6 months up to 1,950 RMB per month for teachers who work at our Kids & amp; Teens schools

●667 RMB monthly flight allowance plus upfront flights for many locations

●10,000 RMB salary advance available

●Health insurance

●10 paid annual leave days plus 11 national holidays

JOB REQUIREMENTS

●A Bachelor’s Degree

●ATEFL Certification (EF TEFL sponsorship available)

●Passport holder from UK, USA, Canada, Ireland, Australia or New Zealand

●Ability to live abroad for at least one year

Apply online:?http://cips.io/bf59bb

36. What can we know about English First from the passage?

A. It has set teaching standard for English teachers in China.

B. It will offer a salary of more than 16,400 RMB per month.

C. It has had branches in every city of China for over 20 years.

D. It performs well among privately-owned education company.

37. If you work in English First, you should ________.

A. teach abroad at least 2 years B. work in more than 300 schools

C. have interest in education and travel D. hold passports of several countries

【答案】36. D 37. C

【解析】

本文属于应用文,为English First的招聘广告,具体包括岗位待遇、入职要求等等。

【36题详解】

细节理解题。根据第二段Teach anywhere in China with English First, the world leading privately-owned education company.可知,English First世界领先的私人教育机构,因而比其他教育机构表现好,故选D。

【37题详解】

推理判断题。根据第三段Teach adults, children or online at one of our 300+ schools以及Teach abroad for as long as you’d like it to – teaching contracts start at one year, with option to renew for a longer term可知,该公司的职位是教师,另外需要到国外去教学,因而必须要对教育和旅行感兴趣,故选C。

B

California has become the first U.S. state to approve plans to require newly-built homes to include solar equipment.

The state’s Energy Commission voted 5-0 to approve the new rules, which are to take effect in 2020. The rules will deal with most newly-built residential (住宅的) buildings up to three stories high.

The move is California’s latest step aimed at reaching renewable energy targets and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

California has set a goal of filling half of its electricity needs with renewable energy by 2030. Officials said they had reached 30 percent by the end of 2017. The state’s Governor, Jerry Brown, plans to hold an international climate meeting in September.

①The Energy Commission said the cost of adding solar equipment to a single-family home would be about $9,500. But, the group added that homeowners would save at least $19,000 in energy costs over 30 years.

Robert Raymer is the technical director for the California Building Industry Association. He says the action is a step forward for the wider use of solar power in the U.S. “You can bet every other of the 49 states will be watching closely to see what happens,” he told the Associated Press.

②Solar companies praised the new requirements, which officials have said will likely raise demand for solar equipment in California by 10-15 percent.

The Solar Energy Industries Association called it a “historic decision for the state and the U.S.” It estimated the action would produce “huge economic and environmental benefits,” including bringing tens of billions of dollars into California.

③Some legislative and community leaders argued that Californians cannot afford to pay any more for housing in what is already an extremely high-priced market.

“That’s just going to drive the cost up and make California, once again, not affordable to live in,” said California Assemblyman Brian Dahle.

④Severin Borenstein is an energy economist at the University of California, in Berkeley. He sent an email to the head of California’s Energy Commission to urge the state to reconsider its decision.

He expressed his belief that it is a mistake for California to approve such a policy instead of centering on efforts to develop large solar farms to produce renewable energy. He said these farms would cost much less to operate.

“Every energy economist I know is shaking their head at this,” he told the Wall Street Journal. “In many ways, this is setting the wrong example,” he added.

38. According to the rules to take effect in 2020, newly-built homes are expected to ________.

A. replace large solar farms B. be equipped with solar equipment

C. have the height of three stories D. stop greenhouse gas emissions

39. From what Robert Raymer says, we can know that _______.

A. other 49 states won’t follow in the footsteps of California

B. California can achieve its goal of renewable energy by 2030

C. the action will help homeowners save money in the long term

D. the new rules will probably enjoy a great popularity in the US

40. The sentence “But some individuals and groups were against the new rules.” should be placed in_______.

A. ① B. ②

C. ③ D. ④

41. The purpose of the passage is _______.

A. to show different attitudes towards an approval

B. to express the significance of renewable energy

C. to inform a new way of dealing with climate change

D. to prove a new plan of solar equipment unreasonable

【答案】38. B 39. D 40. C 41. A

【解析】

本文属于新闻,介绍加利福利亚州是美国第一个州通过居民住房必须配置太阳能设备,这一举动旨在扩大太阳能的使用比例,减少二氧化碳的排放,受到环保和技术人士的支持,但是也有反对意见。

【38题详解】

细节理解题。根据第一段California has become the first U.S. state to approve plans to require newly-built homes to include solar equipment.可知,该州通过法律,要求居民住宅配备太阳能设备,而该法律于2020年生效,故选B。

【39题详解】

推理判断题。根据第六段You can bet every other of the 49 states will be watching closely to see what happens可知,Robert Raymer相信加州的这一举动会得到美国其他49个州的密切关注,因而相信会在美国其他州扩大,故选D。

【40题详解】

推理判断题。根据第九段Some legislative and community leaders argued that Californians cannot afford to pay any more for housing in what is already an extremely high-priced market.可知,前文主要讲述支持的理由,而从本段开始提出了反对的意见,一些立法者认为加州房价已经够高,而这一举动会助长房价的进一步上涨,让人们无力承担,故But some individuals and groups were against the new rules.应放在第三句话处,故选C。

【41题详解】

主旨大意题。根据文章可知,本文对加州新法案提供了正反两种不同的态度,因而本文的目的在于陈述不同的态度,故选A。

C

More than four decades ago British scientist Robert Edwards first witnessed the miracle of human life growing inside a test tube at his Cambridge lab. Since that ground-breaking moment, more than four million babies have been born through IVF and in 2010 his great contribution to science was finally recognized as he was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine.

The prize for Dr. Edwards, who was given a Daily Mirror Pride of Britain Award in 2008, includes a £900,000 check. The Nobel Assembly described IVF as a “milestone in modern medicine”.

the help of fellow scientist Patrick Steptoe, the Manchester-born physiologist developed IVF - leading to the birth of the world’s first test tube baby. Dr. Steptoe died 10 years later but their work has transformed fertility treatment and given hope to millions of couples.

It was a scientific breakthrough that transformed the lives of millions of couples. They said: “His achievements have made it possible to treat infertility, a disease which makes human unable to have a baby. This condition has been afflicting a large percentage of mankind including more than 10% of all couples worldwide.”

Louise Brown, the world’s first test tube baby, made international headlines when she was born in Oldham, Gtr Manchester, in 1978 to parents Lesley and John who had been fruitlessly trying for a baby since 1969.

n-vitro fertilization is the process whereby egg cells are fertilized outside the body before being implanted in the womb. After a cycle of IVF, the probability of a couple with infertility problems having a baby is one in five—the same as healthy couples who conceive naturally.

Professor Edwards, who has five daughters and 11 grandchildren, began his research at Cambridge University in 1963, after receiving his PhD in 1955. He once said: “The most important thing in life is having a child. Nothing is more special than a child.” With the help of fellow scientist Patrick Steptoe, Prof. Edwards founded the Bourn Hall clinic in Cambridge shire, which now treats more than 900 women a year. Each year, more than 30,000 women in Britain now undergo IVF and 11,000 babies are born as a result of the treatment.

But his work attracted widespread criticism from some scientists and the Catholic Church who said it was “unethical and immoral”.

Martin Johnson, professor of reproductive sciences at the University of Cambridge, said the award was “long overdue”. He said: “We couldn’t understand why the Nobel has come so late but he is delighted - this is the cherry on the cake for him.”

Professor Edwards was too ill to give interviews but a statement released by his family said he was “thrilled and delighted”.

42. What is Robert Edwards’ contribution to science?

A. Enabling millions of couples to live a better life.

B. Helping couples with infertility to have tube babies.

C. Seeing the wonder of the first tube baby growing

D. Challenging a disease which stops human having a baby.

43. Why did Professor Edwards begin his research on tube baby?

A. Because a special child did make a difference to an ordinary family.

B. Because the birthrate around the world was unexpectedly low then.

C. Because he thought it of great significance to have a child in life.

D. Because his fellow scientist wanted to give hope to the unlucky couples.

44. It can be inferred from Paragraph 8 and Paragraph 9 that ___________.

A. Professor Edwards deserved the prize for his breakthrough.

B. different opinions were voiced on Professor Edwards’ finding.

C. some people envied Professor Edwards for his being awarded.

D. the prize was late because the finding was first considered immoral.

45. What might be the best title for the passage?

A. Life Stories of Robert Edwards B. Preparations for Having a Baby

C. Treatment of Infertility in a Lab D. Nobel Prize for IVF Expert Edwards

【答案】42. B 43. C 44. B 45. D

【解析】

本文属于记叙文,介绍Robert Edwards因发明试管婴儿技术而获得诺贝尔医学奖,该技术让数百万无法生育的家庭迎来自己的孩子,以及当时一些科学家和教会对该技术的不同意见。

【42题详解】

细节理解题。根据第一段Since that ground-breaking moment, more than four million babies have been born through IVF and in 2010 his great contribution to science was finally recognized as he was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine.可知,自从Robert Edwards发明试管婴儿技术来,数百万个无法生育的家庭有了自己的孩子,最终于2010年获得诺贝尔奖,可知他的贡献在于帮助无法生育的家庭能够拥有孩子,故选B。

【43题详解】

细节理解题。根据第七段He once said: “The most important thing in life is having a child. Nothing is more special than a child.”可知,孩子对于整个家庭的意义非常重要,故选C。

【44题详解】

推理判断题。根据第八段his work attracted widespread criticism from some scientists and the Catholic Church可知,他的研究引来了一些科学家和教会的批评,同时诺贝尔委员会对此也没有达成统一的看法,因而获奖很晚,故选B。

【45题详解】

主旨大意题。根据第一段Since that ground-breaking moment, more than four million babies have been born through IVF and in 2010 his great contribution to science was finally recognized as he was awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine.可知,本文主要讲述Robert Edwards因发明试管婴儿技术而获得诺贝尔医学奖,以及当时对该技术的不同意见,故选D。

D

Mayor Day called me that morning, his voice full of an urgency I’d never heard before. “These Chinese big people are coming to our town and I need you to prepare something really special for them. I’m relying on you, Adrian. The whole town is. This could be just the thing to put us over the top.”

“Okay, I’m on it,” I said. I’m a caterer (酒席承办人), and for years I’ve done all the mayor’s events for Thomasville, Alabama, our little town of 4,099. He likes everything I make, but I knew exactly what he wanted this time, banana pudding, his favorite.

It’s my mama’s recipe. It was her desserts that she was known for. Mama cooked her banana pudding on the stove. Hers was thick and cream-colored, not dark yellow like the other ladies made. I remember practicing in the kitchen when I was a young girl. Mama showed me how to make banana pudding properly. “Good job, Adrian,” Mama would say. I was so proud when I finally got mine just right, the way she did.

For months Mayor Day had tried his best to persuade some Chinese businessmen who ran a copper company to build their new plant in Thomasville, but our little town didn’t have the land they needed. “We are leaning toward Houston or Lamar,” the company representative told Mayor Day. “There is nothing personal, just business.”

“Wait! What about Wilcox County?” the mayor asked. Wilcox, just east of us, was one of the poorest counties in the entire United States and had got plenty of land. There hadn’t been any kind of plant built there since the 1970s.

“But that’s not your county,” the company representative said. “Why are you lobbying (游说) for them?”

“Because if you build in Wilcox County their economy will grow and so will Thomasville’s. Besides, there’s something to be said for loving your neighbor, isn’t there?”

The representative agreed to visit Wilcox County before the final decision was made. All the top leaders would come and have lunch in Thomasville, lunch that I cooked. And for dessert, the dish the mayor hoped would sweeten the deal. Banana pudding with 300 jobs riding on it, I knew it had to be perfect, like Mama’s.

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